[This article is written to present concept of Quran about ‘Evolution’ and ‘Origin of Human Life’ on earth, and then compare it with Modern Scientific Theory of Evolution. It also states ‘Research Work on Evolution’ by Muslim Scientists during golden age of Islam, prior to Darwin. Finally , it is concluded by explaining benefits of following God’s Guidance to ‘Observe’ everything in the Universe with ‘Deep Thinking’ , find out the reason of creating these and ‘Evolve Ways’ to make out of it something beneficial for mankind. It is an act of great worship for those scientists, who believe, obey and glorify God – The Ultimate Creator of everything. ]
- How God created human beings at the beginning?
- Had he Created first man Adam from clay to complete human beings with soul without making other species first and then finally converting them to human beings through process of evolution ?
- Is it fact that human beings came into existence from other species like monkeys, Apes etc. through evolutionary process as Science of Human Evolution thinks ?
- Are the monkeys, apes our ancestors ?
- Are all the animals from the same ancestor ?
After publication of books; ‘ Origin of Species (1859)’ and ‘ The Descent of Man (1871)’ by Charles Darwin ( 1809-1892) and introduction of his , ‘ Theory of evolution’ in the curriculum of Educational Institutes of Muslim countries; Many young Muslims are observed to raise similar questions as above.
These questions have arisen among many Muslims, specially in younger generation because;
i ) They do not have clear concept on the subject based on Quran ii) Muslim students studying ‘Theory of Evolution’ in the Schools and Universities often consider the theory contradicts with what they learned as religious faith.
iii) In many institutions, there is no curriculum and qualified teacher to teach Quranic concept on above questions, compare and lead them to correct conclusion.
- Different perception about origin of human beings:
- Religious Perception.
- Scientific Perception.
- Philosophical Perception.
In our time the debate is mostly between Religious and Scientific perception. Are both right or one right and the other is wrong ? What are the similarities in both ? In this article we will discuss perception of Islam and compare this with Scientific perception so that younger generation, particularly Muslim students have some basic knowledge on the subject from Quran to compare with what they learn from Science.
We will first discuss each of these two perceptions and then try to answer above questions in conclusion based on our discussion.
- Religious Perception :
Almost all world religion believe that human beings are the creation of God or Gods. But every religion has a unique perception on how God or Gods has created human beings. Christians, Jews and Muslims believe that ‘Adam’ is the first man created by God.
Here we will discuss on the Perception of Creation of Human Beings in the Religion of Islam.
- Origin of human beings according to Islamic belief :
- Names and Attributes of Allah :
To understand Islamic perception, we will first investigate what Allah says about Him as a Creator, what are His attributes pertaining to any creation.
Names and attributes of Allah is the first basis towards Islamic faith about origin of human beings and concept of creation in general. ‘Allah’ is the nearest equivalent of english word ‘God’. Allah is known to Muslims by His ninety-nine names. Believing in these names is fundamental part of Islamic Faith in Allah. These names and attributes of Allah are very meaningful in understanding Allah and deciding believer’s action in life in response to these names. Here we will mention three names, that give the basic concept of any creation by Allah. These names are mentioned in Quran in a single verse ( 59:24) successively : “He is Allah, the Creator ( Al-Khaliq ),the Evolver ( Al-Baari ), the Fashioner( Al- Musawwir)”:
- Al-Khaaliq : English translation of the Name ‘ Al- Khaaliq’ is ‘ The Creator’.
It refers to One Who brings anything new from non-existence to existence.
For anything new creation, as a first step comes ‘ Design and planning’. So the very name ‘Creator’ stresses’ design and proportion’.
- Al-Baari : English translation of the Name Al-Bari is “ The Evolver’. It stresses the process of bringing things into reality gradually.
- Al- Musawwir : English translation of the Name ‘Al- Musawwir’ is ‘The Fashioner , Bestower of Forms and colour’. Allah brings into existence anything He Wills in the shape and form or colour He decides. In case of human beings, it is stated in Quran as; “In whatever form He (Allah) willed, He put you together” (82:8).
The meaning of above names indicates the concept of God’s creation process. It is a gradual process that goes on step by step like; Design→Making→Finishing.
For a better understanding of above process of Creation, we are stating below commentary on these names by two great scholars of 19th century; Imam Sayyid Qutub and Imam Moududi.
- Imam Sayyid Qutub :
In the commentary of verse 24 of chapter 59 in his great tafsir, ‘Fizilalil Quran’ Sayyid Qutub stated :“The creator stresses design and proportion, while the Maker stresses the process of beginning things into reality. The two attributes are intertwined, and the difference between them is subtle. ‘Who gives shape and form to all (59:24)- This attribute is also closely related to the two before it. It means that God is the One, Who gives every creature its distinctive features and specific qualities that makeup its personality.
The succession of these interlinked qualities, with their subtle differences, prompts us to follow the process of creation and initiation, stage by stage , as we humans conceive of it. In actual fact, there are no stages or steps. What we know of these attributes is not their absolute reality, because this is known only to God. We only know some of the effects they produce, as this is the limit of our understanding”.
- Imam Moududi :
In the commentary of same verse (59:23 ) Imam Moududi writes in his great tafsir‘ Tahfimul Quran’ :
“The whole world and everything in it, from initial plan of its creation till its coming into existence in its final, finished form is entirely Allah’s work of creation. Nothing has come into existence by itself nor come about accidentally, nor has anyone else the least share in its creation and development. Here Allah’s act of creation has been described in three separate stages ,which takes place one after the other. First is the stage of Khalq, which means to ordain or to plan. It is like an engineer’s conceiving the design of a building which he intends to build for a specific purpose and draws out its detailed diagram and Model. The second stage is ‘Barr’ , which actually means to separate, to cut to split asunder. The Creator has been called ‘Bari’ in the sense that He enforces the plan He has conceived and brings out the thing from non-existence into existence. It is Analogous to the engineer’s putting mark on the ground of the full measurement of the building according to the plan, digging the foundation, raising the wall and completing all the practical preliminaries of the construction work. The third stage is ‘taswir’, which means to give shape, here it implies giving something its final complete shape. In all these three stages there is no resemblance whatever between Allah’s work and human works. None of human plans is such as may not have been derived from previous models and plans. But each of Allah’s plan is unique and His own original creation. Whatever man makes , he makes it by combining the substances created by Allah. He does not bring anything from non-existence into existence , but composes and construct by different methods, from whatever is present and available. Contrary to this , Allah has brought everything from non-existence into creation , and the substance itself of which He has made the universe is invented by Him. Likewise, in the matter of giving shape also man is not the inventor but an initiator , and only a poor initiator. The real Maker of forms and shapes is Allah, Who has given unique and matchless shape to every species and individual and has never repeated exactly the same shape or form”.
From above explanations, we can summarise some points as follows:
- Process of Allah in creating or making anything is gradual, step by step. It starts by designing, then making and finally finishing. Sometime, Allah brings a change in His creation during or after making also [ Have the unbelievers not ever considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, before we separated them ? We made every living thing from water. Will they not then believe? ( Quran 21 : 30)].This process is so efficient that it helps to make something better in what we make or do, though not to the perfection of Allah. This process of Allah is mentioned in Quran for us to follow His system. Otherwise Allah does not need these, He can make anything without any process any time.
- Whatever scientists make, they do this by using something that exist. They can not make anything without any element from existing creation of Allah. They may or may not succeed in whatever they intend to make also. Whereas, Allah makes something new absolutely from nothing without fail.
4.Why Allah follows method of making something step by step ?
One may ask why Allah needs to make something in a gradual process and also changes after making something like a process human being does ? Can not He make something in one go without any process? Yes, Allah is able to do anything without any process in no time : “ Verily, when He ( Allah) intends a thing, His Command is , ‘be’, and it is” ! ( Quran 36 : 82).
This is only possible by Allah alone. This capacity is not given to any creation, nor human beings. So , Allah demonstrate by doing Himself a method that suits mankind best for making anything by them and taught this to human beings. In our own eyes we can see whoever, Muslim or non- Muslims follows way of Allah ( Planning, Design, making and finishing ) they do something much better than those who do not follow.
- Process of Allah in creating first human beings.
After discussion about general process of Allah in creating anything, we will now discuss about method of Allah in the creation of human beings. For the purpose of understanding direct from Qurans, first we will state some verses and then discuss the subject with reference to these verses :
- “ Indeed He ( Allah) has created you in several stages” ( 71: 14).
- “Who ( Allah ) has created you, then Fashioned you, then balanced you”( 82:7)
- “ ( Remember) When your Lord said to the angels, I will create human beings out of pure-mud moulded clay. When I have made him complete and breathed into him My ( created ) Soul ,then you should bow down in honour of him “ ( Quran 15:28 , 29).
- “ we have created human being from an extract of clay”(23:12).
- “We made everything from water”(21:30).
- “We have certainly created human being in the finest Form” ( 95:4)
- “He (Allah) can give you whatever shape He wills” ( 82 :7)
The perception of creation of human beings in above verses is in line with general principle of Allah in creating anything as stated earlier. Creation of human beings was done by Allah by bringing from one state to another. The indications that we get from above verses are as follows :
- ‘I will create( verse 15 :28)’ indicates stage of –‘ plan and design’.
- Using clay ( 23 :12), water ( 21:30) and completing physical shape is stage by stage process of making,
- Implanting Soul in it is ‘end stage’ of finishing and making first human being Adam..
- First man as created above , is in the finest Form ( 95:4) in spiritual qualities and physical shape. It is a unique creation from the day it is given soul and declared as human being. So, there is no scope of thinking human being is the descent of monkey, gorilla, apes or some animals like that as Darwin thought.
- There may be a scope to think , what was the stages of human beings from the state of ‘clay’ till complete ‘human physical shape’ was made and ‘soul’ was implanted in the body. Allah did not say anything about this stage. So, a believer should not waste time in search of what happened in this period, because there is no benefit in doing so. Still if someone wants to consider that before implanting soul it was ‘apes’ ; that also not possible by Islamic faith. Allah stated in Quran that He converted some human beings to apes for disobeying His order.
- Physical shape , size and colour of human beings may changes depending of region, environment, present, past as Allah wills (82:7). Archeologist and scientific findings of variations (if Allah wished and did in the past or He wishes to do in future) is not We have noticed such changes in Quran as stated earlier about changes in already created skies and earth.
- Modern Scientific theory of evolution (by Charles Darwin ) states; ‘ Environment of water is the beginning of life on earth’. This is what Quran stated 1200 years before So, we can say some scientific findings may match with Quranic science and some may not. In this situation we consider Allah is right. Many scientific facts later on proved wrong even by the scientists
6.Can human beings be converted to monkeys, apes ?
We have discussed earlier that Allah did not state about creating man from monkey or other species in His evolutionary process. But He stated in Quran of making some rebellious human being to monkey as punishment: “When they crossed the limit of the prohibition, We made them turn into detested apes” ( Quran 7 :166). Allah caused them to die without leaving any off-spring. If archeologist found some fossil of such apes and Darwin did his research based on that fossils ; it may not be unlikely to find some similarities. Allah knows best. But Allah, Who punished rebellious human beings by converting them to apes; is unlikely to create first man ( whom he declared best creation) from apes. It does not fit in human logic even.
It is also understood from a tradition of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) that Allah will again punish some human beings by converting them to pigs and monkeys. He said : “Some of human beings will be converted to monkeys and pigs for their denial of Faith in Destiny” ( Muslim 2663). Here also we understand some human beings will be punished again by converting to monkeys and pigs. So , how a Muslim can accept monkeys as their ancestors?
7.Human evolutionary process of Allah that we see at every child’s birth.
After telling about creation of first man Adam, Allah stated human embryology and birth process in Quran. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) has explained this process in his traditions. Whatever, described about human embryology 1400 years ago, Modern life science have established the same facts only in 19th Century. In 7th century, when Quran was revealed such knowledge on human embryology was not possible. For this reason Professor Keith Moore of Toronto University said Quran is word of God.
For understanding evolutionary nature of Allah in our own creation, we are stating here few examples from Quran:
- “He makes you in the womb of your mother in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness” ( Quran 39:6 ) .
- “Then we made the sperm into a clot of thickened blood; then of that clot We made a ( foetus ) lump; then We made from that lump bones and clothed the bones with flesh; then We developed out of it another creature. So, blessed be Allah, the best to create” (Quran 23 :14),
- Allah says : “ O people ! If you are in doubt about the Resurrection, you must know that we created you from clay ( through Adam) , then out of sperm, then out of a leech-like clot, then from a lump of flesh, complete in make or incomplete, in order that we may manifest ( our power ) to you ; and We settle in the womb whom We will for a specified term , then we take out of the womb as a baby, so that you may attain maturity and some of you are called to death, and others may grow to very old age and lose your memory”(Quran 22:5).
We can observe in above verses that Allah did not use His power of creation by a single command, ‘be’ and ‘it is’ ( ref. Quran 36 : 82). He had taken stage by stage creation in the role of ‘evolver’( Baari ) in the creation of human beings by birth.
8.Modern time Scientific theory about origin of Human Life:
We have discussed above ‘perception of Islam’ about the process of creation of everything and in particular, creation of human beings. Same way we will discuss here scientific perception on the subject.
- Evolutionary theory in Modern Science :
Charles Darwin ( 1809-1892) is regarded as architect of Modern Evolutionary theory. His famous books on this subject are:
- a) The Origin of species ( published in 1859 ).
- b) The Descent of Man (published in1871).
- a) The Origin of Species (1859):
Darwin published his discovery,’ The Theory of Evolution’ in his book, “The Origin of Species” in 1859. It describes the process by which Organism changes over time; as a result of changes in heritable( hereditary ) physical or behavioral traits. Changes that allow an organism to better adapt to its environment will help it survive and have more offspring.
There is well acceptance of this book among scientists. Many discoveries benefitting to mankind was made based on this theory later.
The theory of Evolution was rejected by religious authorities of Christians and Jews. Muslims followed them. About a Century later, in 1950 the Catholic Church declared that there was no incompatibility between evolution and Catholicism.
Religion of Islam towards theory of evolution is very clear. Quran states ‘Allah’ as ‘ Evolver ( Al- Baari)’. Evolution is His process of creation. He has adopted the method of step by step changing of things to final perfection of any creation as a process. We have provided evidence from Quran on this earlier. Objectives of such process is to teach people to understand better way of doing something. Otherwise, Allah can create anything at any time without adopting any process.
b)The Descent of Man (1871).
12 years after the book , ‘ The Origin of Species’, Darwin wrote another famous book, ‘ The Descent of Man’. In this book he reviewed human beings in the light of his evolutionary theory. He suggested that all life (including human beings) might be traced to a common ancestor. He imagined that history of life on earth resembled a grand tree. All species are connected to a common ancestor, like branches of a tree to a single trunk. He is of the opinion that apes ( monkey, gorilla) shared a common ancestor with humans and that the two species had gradually diverged under the effect of environmental condition that they live.
Tree life and Fossil record was the basis of Darwin’s ‘Theory of Human Evolution’.
Tree life :
Recent Scientific Research on ‘Tree Life’ and ‘ Fossil’ record that Darwin used in concluding his ‘Theory of Human Evolution’ is not very promising. Many scientists deserted Darwin’s perception of Human Evolution. We are quoting here opinion of two evolutionary scientists on Tree life ;as example;
- Evolutionary scientist ,Eric Bapteste ( Professor at Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris) says about ‘Tree Life Theory’ of Human Evolution : “ We have no evidence at all that the Tree Life a reality” ( ref. New scientist Magazine,’ Uprooting Darwin’s Tree’ January 24, 2009).
- Evolutionary biologist , Michael Rose (University of California) said about Darwin’s Tree life : “ Tree life is being politely buried” .
Fossils record :
Fate of Fossil record, as a basis of human evolution is no way different than Tree life. Modern scientists think, ‘Fossil track record that Darwin used from geologist of his time to support changes of species in his theory of human evolution is too poor. As a reference , we are stating here : Dr. Lyall Watsons citation in 1982; from Charles Scott Kimball’s , “ The Truth About Caveman” : “ The Fossils that decorate our ‘Family Tree’ are so scare that there are still more scientists than Specimens. The remarkable fact is that all of the physical evidence we have for human evolution can still be placed, with room to spare, inside a single coffin! This might come as a surprise to you if you are assuming that we actually have somewhat complete skeleton of Any of Our Ancestor”.
By seeing above inadequacy of Fossils specimens , one might think that these pieces of specimens may be from the remains of human beings converted to apes by Allah as punishment that we stat earlier. Under the situation above, no faithful Muslim can accept human evolution from apes, monkeys as suggested by Darwin.
By above statement , I do not say that Muslims should reject Human Evolution Theory as a whole. There are elements (like species are originated from water) in this theory which are in cohesion with Quran. We should only add Islamic view to the points that are not compatible with Quran (like monkey, apes are the ancestor of human being ).
9.Role of Muslim Scientists in Evolutionary Science in ‘Golden Age’ of Islam
General idea of Evolution originated in ancient Greeks about 2600 years ago. Muslim scientists took over from them and develop further. During Golden period of Islam ( 8th to 14th Century ) Muslim scientists did significant contribution in Evolutionary Science. They followed instruction of Allah in Quran; ‘observe and think deeply about every creation and then take action accordingly’. Regarding order of Allah for ‘observation and thinking’ and subsequent response from the believers to the Order of Allah; we are stating below two verses of Quran:
“ Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the alteration of the night and the day are signs for those of understanding , who remember Allah while standing or sitting or lying on the sides and think deeply about the creation of the heavens ( universe and beyond) and the earth , and say , ‘ Our Lord ! You have not created all these without a reason”.(Quran 7:190-191)
Allah invites man of understanding to observe the open book of His signs , the Universe. Believer’s horizon of observation and thinking should encompass entire Universe. Glorify and remember Allah always by observing these signs. Worship him by unfolding the mystery of these creation. During golden age of Islam ; Muslim rulers and citizens fulfilled the wishes of Allah as stated in the above verses. They made research on creation of Allah as a devoted Muslim scientist. As a result, numerous inventions by ‘Muslim Scientist in Golden Age of Islam’ happened for the welfare of mankind.
Here we will mention few examples , of achievement only in the field of ‘Evolutionary Science:
- Al- Jahiz (781 -869 )
He was from a place in present Iraq. His publication: “ The Book of Animal”, is one of earliest research on the theory of evolution. He states in this book :
“ Animals engage in struggle for existence, for resources, to avoid being eaten and to breed. Environment factors influence organisms to develop new characteristics to ensure survival, thus transforming into new species. Animals that survive to breed can pass on their successful characteristics to offspring”.
- Ibn Miskawahy ( 930 -1030 ):
He was from Persia (Iran). He is one of the first architects of, ‘Theory of Evolution’.
He described the theory of evolution and attributed the process of both creation and evolution to Allah- to Whom everything goes back as ultimate Creator.
His first book on the theory of evolution is, ‘ Al- fawz Al- Kabir ( The greatest victory )’. He wrote in this book :
“ God first created matter and invested it with energy for development. Matter, therefore, adopted the form of vapour which assumed the shape of water in due time. The next stage of development was mineral life. Different kinds of stones developed in course of time. Their highest form being mirjan ( coral ). It is a stone which has in it branches like those of a tree. After mineral life evolves vegetation. The evolution of vegetation culminates with a tree which bears the qualities of an animal. This is the date-palm. It has male and female genders. It does not wither if all its branches are chopped but it dies when the head is cut off. The date-palm is therefore, considered the highest among the trees and resembles the lowest among animals. Then is born the lowest animals. It evolves into an ape”.
He also wrote another book, ‘Al- Fawz Al- Asghar ( The smallest achievement)’. He writes in this book: “ Every animal really originates from a non-animal, for the seminal fluid is not itself an animal. The fluid is made of blood and blood is made of food and food of plants and plants of elements and elements of the simple atoms and these latter of ‘form’ and matter”( ref, Islamic Academy of science, 1987).
- Ibn Khaldun ( 1332- 1406 ).
Ibn Khaldun is Muslim philosopher and scientist from Tunisia.
He wrote his thoughts about Biological Evolution in his great book, ‘ Al-Muqaddimah ‘in 1377. Below text from this book gives summary of his thoughts on evolution :
“ One should then take a look at the world of creation. It started out from the minerals and progressed, in an ingenious, gradual manner, to plants and animals. The last stage of minerals is connected with the first stage of plants, such as herbs and seedless plants. The last stage of plants, such as palms and vine, is connected with the first stage of animals, such as snails and shellfish.
The animal world then widens , its species become numerous, and, in a gradual process of creation, it finally leads to man, who is able to think and reflect the higher stage of man is reached from the world of monkeys, in which both wisdom and perception are found”.
- Above three references, I have chosen from many because their theory is very close to modern theory of evolution by Darwin. Otherwise , there were many more ancient scientists such as; Al-Farabi ( 870-950), Al- Biruni ( 973-1048 ), Ibn-Sina(980-1037), Ibn-Tufayl (1100-1186), In- Rushd ( 1126-1198), Al-Khazini (1130) and many more to name.
- While comparing the Theory of Evolution by three Muslims scientists with Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, we do not find any fundamental difference. Obviously , question arises about the source of Darwin’s theory ?
- As a closing remark , on the contribution of Muslim scientists to Modern Theory of Evolution; I would like to add here a comment made by American scientist ,John William Draper ( 1811-1882) in 1878 , just 7 years after Darwin published his book, ‘ The Descent of Man in 1871). Draper was contemporary of Charles Darwin. He wrote the following on what he called, the “ Mohammadan Theory of Evolution” in 1878 in his book, “ Conflict between Religion and Science” :
“ Sometimes, not without surprise, we meet with ideas which we flatter ourselves have originated in our own times. Thus, our modern doctrines of evolution and development were taught in their schools. In fact, they carried out them much further than we are disposed to do extending them even to inorganic or mineral things”.
Indeed ! Above is a great recognition of achievements of Muslim scientists by a renowned scientist of Darwin’s time . He recognised that 500 years before Darwin, Muslim scientists was so advanced that Modern doctrine of evolution was taught in their school.
Above achievements was possible because early Muslims rightly understood direction of Allah for technological advancement from Quran. Government, intellectuals, philosophers, scientists all worked together, made research and taught in schools for this. Observation and deep thinking in the creation of Allah and following His process of step by step making something made them leader in Science and Technology in the world in the Golden Period of Islam.
Unfortunately , this could not continue after the fall of Muslim land to colonial rule and later on during the rule of dictators and monarchs.
Numerous inventions are happening Modern World by observation and deep thinking on God’s creation. Foundation of many of these inventions was laid by Muslim scientists of Golden Period. But many from Modern era scientists failed to glorify, remember and Worship God, who has facilitated in the invention of all these. About them, Sayyid Qutb writes in the commentary of above verse( 7 : 190, 191) in his great tafsir ‘Fizilalil Quran’ :
“Had natural sciences which study various aspects, laws and phenomena of the universe in order to unravel their secrets and potential , been directed to remembrance of the Creator of this universe and to appreciate and acknowledge His majesty and grace, they would instantaneously have become part of worship and prayer to the Creator. Human life would have benefitted a great deal by these sciences and would have turned towards God”.
- From the time ‘soul’ is implanted in the body of Adam, he is the most honourable human being, whom even angels honored by bowing in front of him.
- From state of clay till implanting soul ; what stages , process and changes Allah made to make complete human being is not revealed by Allah. So, status of these stages has nothing to do with Islamic faith.
- Monkey as ancestor of human being is not acceptable for a Muslim.
Allah punished some people by converting them to apes ( monkeys) for violating His order. It is not logical to think that Allah created human being from monkey, when we know from Quran that He punished some disobedient human beings by converting them to monkey.
- Evolutionary process in making something and doing something step by step through gradual process of design, make, finish and bringing changes in creation during or after making is a method of Allah. So instead of avoiding Science of evolution, Muslims should actively pursue it as early Muslims deed. Only needed to avoid things that stand against concept of Quran.
- Evolutionary Theory is not just about fossils study to know origin of man and decide man’s ancestors. It is a great science covering chemistry, biology, botany, medicine, pharmacology, geology, anthropology and many more. There are many discoveries in these fields by Muslim scientists in Golden Age of Islam. Now these are persuaded by most of the developed countries. Human beings are hugely benefitted by their work. Study of molecules, genes, living organism, environmental effect, conservation biology, evolution of parasites, evolution of antibiotic resistance , cancer research, cloning, genetic, agriculture techniques, DNA study in medical treatment has brought significant benefits for mankind. These has become possible by the development of Science of Evolution.
- Early Muslims could make Muslim nation great by obeying Allah , following His Messenger and upgrading Science and Technology for the use of mankind. Muslim government and citizens persuaded these with all seriousness.
- Our failure as a nation nowadays ,is because we are not doing as above. Dictators of Muslim world is not doing anything substantial in the field of science. Leaders and educationists are more focussed in other things than promoting science. Muslim religious authorities is not encouraging science education as they should. As a result, there is an impression in people that Islam is not that much focus about science . This is contrary to the teaching of Quran. How strange ! We are enjoying fruits of science everyday and do not encourage scientific study and activities. Allah does not change Fate of a Nation if they do not work for change.
- Muslims need to work for good government, good leader, good education system, University, Laboratory and Research Centre for promoting science. Solid focus, strong determination, hard work and priority in national budget for resources can bring change in present situation of Muslim Nation.
- Muslims study science by observation and deep thinking about all creations of Allah to glorify, remember and worship Allah and serve mankind by unfolding mystery of every creation. No Muslim can try to validate Quran by scientific facts. Rather they should study Quran and make research on scientific facts of Quran for promoting science. Quran is word of God. God does not commit any mistake, humans does.
Syed Md Jalal Uddin